Romans 2, In this chapter, Paul is trying to level the spiritual playing field by showing what the proper approach to Torah, and hence a right relationship with YHVH, should be. It should be a non-hypocritical and humble-heart approach, which is neither dependent upon one’s race (i.e., Jew or Gentile) nor upon the factitiousness with which one keeps the various prescription of Torah.
Being a Jew or not being one is not the point with YHVH. Rather, what is one’s heart attitude vis-à-vis Torah-obedience. This is lifting Torah-obedience to its proper intent and highest level.
This is the true message of this chapter as summed up in verse 29: But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God. The word Jew is the Hebrew word Y’hudi which is related to hodayah which means “praise.” Therefore, a true Jew is a literally a “Yah-praiser,” and Paul is using a wordplay hear to make this point. Why does one want to be a Jew, or why does one want to keep Torah? To please men, or to please YHVH? To keep Torah to be a man-pleaser negates the true intent of Torah and of being a Jew which is to help one to be a hodayah; i.e., a Yah-praiser.